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The Cell Force Analyzer (CFArefer) is a measurement device for cellular mechano-biological studies. It precisely measures mechanical forces (stresses) of eukaryotic cell layers and their changes due to biochemical, pharmacological, or mechanical interventions. Biochemisch pharamkologische Investigations of the effect of the substance on cell forces provide dose-response curves, reversibility data (wash-out), and time courses of the effect of the substance over several days.

Yes, in two ways. 1) By adding the substances directly to the test suspension above the test cell layers. However, 2) often the efficacy of natural remedies only unfolds via their metabolites in the blood plasma of treated donors. Such substance effects can be measured by exposing test cells in the cellDrum to the donors's autologous blood plasma. It is important to note that the device currently has no medical device clearance and is for research purposes only. Ethics committee decisions must be obtained independently of this if studies on test subjects are planned.

The compact device fits on any laboratory bench or under a clean-bench hood. The physical force sensor is an ultra-thin, flexible, and biocompatible PDMS membrane forming the bottom of a cell culture cylinder on which cells are seeded: The CellDrumTM. In addition to biological applications, CFArefer

The device uses quality-tested CellDrum sensors to detect minute contractions of the silicone membrane caused by cellular forces. These are then measured and analyzed.

All adherent cell types that can be cultivated in cell monolayers or thin tissue constructs are suitable for study. Examples include cells of the epidermis and skin, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract, etc.

Capable of detecting subtle changes in cell force with precision in the mPa-kPa range, the instrument provides high sensitivity and resolution for cell tension. The accuracy is within 3% of the reading, which is typically ±2.9 kPa (tension). For more detailed technical information, refer to the product brochure.

CFArefer can record tension/forces ranging from 1 kPa to 1 MPa.

Cell force is a physical force with the SI unit `N`, while cell tension is a tensile force acting in the cell layer parallel to the silicone membrane and has the SI unit `N/m2=Pa`. The cell tension is the total force exerted by the cells in the cultured layer with respect to the cross-section (layer thickness times the diameter of the CellDrum) of the contracting cell layer. Both are SI units.

Yes, our instrument is a benchtop cell force analyzer that is easy to use and comes with detailed instructions for easy setup and operation. In addition, the C&TT hotline offers advice and training.

The instrument provides comprehensive data output, including force measurement data from all six CellDrums simultaneously in the form of raw data and graphs, as well as customizable analysis parameters.

This instrument has many applications in cell biology research, including the study of mechanotransduction. It is also used for drug screening, including natural products. It is also possible to test non-biological materials (polymers, spray paints, adhesives, etc.). Please visit this website for more details.

The instrument is durable and designed for long-term use with minimal maintenance. Periodic calibration checks are recommended to ensure optimum performance. CellDrums are disposable sensors. They can be coated with cells only once.

Yes, we offer a full range of technical support services to assist users with any questions, concerns or problems that may arise during the operation of our products.

To ensure consistent and reproducible measurements under changing environmental conditions, the instrument is equipped with controls to maintain stable conditions throughout the experiment, especially the measurement temperature.

Yes, the device can be adapted for use in complex microenvironments. This allows researchers to study cell-substrate interactions in physiologically relevant environments, including 3D cultures and organ-on-chip platforms.

Mechanobiology is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles from biology, physics, engineering, and mathematics to study how mechanical forces and mechanical properties influence the structure, function, and behaviour of cells and tissues. It seeks to understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical cues from their environment, such as substrate stiffness, fluid flow, and mechanical tension.

Forces in cells are generated through various mechanisms, primarily driven by molecular motors, cytoskeletal elements, and molecular interactions. The coordinated action of these molecular motors, cytoskeletal elements, cell adhesion molecules, and membrane dynamics enables cells to generate and respond to mechanical forces, playing essential roles in various cellular functions and behaviours. In the case of CFArefer we focus on the cell-substrate interactions and the changes in their intensity/strength to determine the changes in cellular forces.

Cardiac muscle cells (CMs), especially hiPS CMs, beat spontaneously and autonomously with an intrinsic rhythm. Without external stimulation, they spontaneously generate electrical signals and contract. On the CellDrum membranes (see video on this website), they generate well measurable rhythmic up and down movements of the membrane. The soft silicone membrane imitates the soft environment of heart cells in vivo. Measurements are possible in the experimental mode of the CFAref. This mode allows recording the beat amplitude (force) curve over time. Both the amplitude as well as the individual time course of single contractions in the presence or absence of a drug can be studied in detail. Cultured cardiomyocytes contribute to advances in cardiac research and regenerative medicine by providing valuable models for studying cardiac physiology, drug effects and disease mechanisms. Personalized medicine for individualized dosing of cardiac drugs becomes possible with hiPS CMs.

Yes, it is possible. In the experimental mode of the CellDrum device, which features six parallel channels, researchers have the flexibility to conduct their own measurements and analyse data independently of the manufacturer's predefined settings. Within the experimental channel, all membrane movements are continuously recorded over time. If the researcher introduces a substance, the recording process is temporarily halted, allowing the researcher to make a note specifying the substance added to the cell drums. The computer marks the time of this entry and saves it accordingly. Following the annotation, the researcher can resume the recording upon request.

CellDrums are sterile, biocompatible cell culture containers that are fitted on one side with a 3-4μm thick, highly flexible silicone membrane (see CellDrum schematic). Due to its biocompatibility and chemical resistance, PDMS is used as the membrane material. Biological cell monolayers and multilayers can be grown on its surface. These are coated with the cell culture solution and cultivated as usual in the incubator. Thanks to its biofunctionalized, cell-specific and soft culture surface, a wide range of cell types can be cultured in an almost physiological environment.

The measurement time for 6 channels is approximately 180 seconds, with no additional customer delay.

Yes, CFArefer can be placed under the clean bench or in the incubator thanks to its autoclavable/sterilizable surface and components

CFA Refer

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